Журналы →  CIS Iron and Steel Review →  2018 →  №1 →  Назад

Foundry and Casting
Название Destruction mechanism of casting graphite in mechanical activation
DOI 10.17580/cisisr.2018.01.03
Автор I. E. Illarionov, T. R. Gilmanshina, A. A. Kovaleva, O. N. Kovtun, N. A. Bratukhina
Информация об авторе

Chuvash state university (Cheboksary, Russia):

I. E. Illarionov, Dr. Eng., Prof.


Siberian federal university (Krasnoyarsk, Russia):
T. R. Gilmanshina, Cand. Eng., Associate Prof., e-mail: gtr1977@mail.ru
A. A. Kovaleva, Cand. Eng., Associate Prof.
O. N. Kovtun, Cand. Eng., Associate Prof.
N. A. Bratukhina, Associate Prof.


Development of the technologies allowing to improve the quality of initial materials is considered as the actual problem of casting and foundry production at present time. This tendency is connected with working and depletion of existing and operating deposits. Natural graphites are subjected to crushing, comminution, concentration and other operations during their preparation. Each of these operations is realized using special equipment, and their transition to the higher technological level requires additional expenses. Thereby, mechanical activation seems to be the most prospective method that does not need to include additional equipment in the technological chain of materials preparation. This process is accompanied by varying of crystal lattice energy in the processing material and is connected with forming of different structural defects (such as dislocations and vacancies), leading to forming of the new separation surfaces. The energy is reserved in such way and then it is spent for strengthening of chemical and physical-mechanical reactions during consequent fabrication of products (including non-stick coatings) on the base of activated materials, aand it was proved convincing in the works. Many investigations in this field have examined only varying of parameters depending on activation time, without any discussion about the destruction mechanism of the particles. This work was aimed on examination of the destruction mechanism of natural graphite during mechanical activation from the point of view of crystallography. Natural crystalline graphite from Zavalyevskoe deposit has been chosen for investigations. The destruction mechanism has been studied on large oval graphite plates with maximal diameter 1.5 mm. Graphite activation was realized in the AGO-2 mill of planetary-centrifugal type. The activation procedures are discussed in the paper. Metallographic analysis via transmission electronic microscope UEVM-100K was used for determination of the mechanism of crack origination in graphite particles. Natural crystalline graphite from Zavalyevskoe deposit containing of oval graphite plates with maximal diameter 1.5 mm and small particles (about 10%) with more complicated and elongated form has been chosen for investigations. Size and total surface of particles, their distribution on fractions has been determined by the method of light laser screening in Novosibirsk institute of solid state chemistry and mechanochemistry on PRO-7000 unit. The form and micro-shape of particles has been determined using transmission electronic microscope UEVM-100K. It was established that destruction of particles during graphite mechanical activation occurs via the mechanism similar to destruction during usual forging. At the same time it was noted that two main types of plastic deformation (slipping and twinning) are observed in mechanical activation owing to strong deformation of graphite crystals under the effect of balls. Fracture planes coincide with slipping planes, while fracture is caused by the defined stress value perpendicular to the fracture surface.

Ключевые слова Graphite, mechanical actication, destruction, plastic deformation, slipping plane, twinning, cast iron, burn-in, non-stick coating
Библиографический список

1. Dmitriev A. V. Rupture of Cryptocrystalline Graphite Ore Pieces. Solid Fuel Chemistry. 2010. Vol. 44. No. 1. pp. 36–39.
2. Jie-Ren Shie. Optimization of Dry Machining Parameters for High-Purity Graphite in End-Milling Process by Artificial Neural Networks: A Case Study. Materials and Manufacturing Processes. 2006. No. 21. pp. 838–845.
3. Leushin I. O., Chistyakov D. G. Graphite phase forming in crystallization of cast iron for its consequent thermal cyclic loads. Chernye metally. 2016. No. 2. pp. 23–27.
4. Mamina L., Gil’manshina T., Koroleva F. Promising methods of graphite enrichment. Lieinoe proizvodstvo. 2003. No. 2. pp. 16–18.
5. Crespo E., Luque F. J., Barrenechea J. F., Rodas M. Influence of grinding on graphite crystallinity from experimental and natural data: implications for graphite thermometry and sample preparation. Mineralogical Magazine. 2006. Vol. 70(6). pp. 697–707.
6. Bogatyreva E. V. Development of theory and practice of efficient application of mechanical activation in the technology of hydrometallurgical development of oxygen-bearing rare earth raw materials : thesis of a cand. of techn. sciences. Moscow. 2015. 331 p.
7. Gilmanshina T. R., Lytkina S. I., Khudonogov S. A., Kritskiy D. Yu. Cryptocrystalline graphite properties study following treatment by different methods. Obogashchenie rud. 2017. No. 1. pp. 15–18.
8. Udalov Yu. P. New crystalline forms of carbon. Up-to-date state of manufacturing technology and application of coal-graphite materials: a package of information materials. St. Petersburg. TsNTI “Progress”. 2000. pp. 1–13.
9. Sreejith P. S., Ngoi B. K. A. Dry machining: machining of the future. J. of Materials Processing Technology. 2000. No. 101. pp. 287–291.
10. Babkin V. G., Leonov V. V. , Gilmanshina T. R., Stepanova T. N. Phase transformations in graphite coatings and their effect on surface cleanness of castings. Chernye metally. 2017. No. 10. pp. 54–59.
11. Mamina L. I. Theoretical grounds of mechanical activation of forming materials and development of the resource-saving technological materials and processes in casting production : thesis of a doct. of techn. sciences. Krasnoyarsk. 1989. 426 p.
12. Gilmanshina T. R., Koroleva G. A., Baranov V. N., Kovaleva A. A. The Kureyskoye deposit graphite mechano-thermochemical modification technology. Obogashchenie rud. 2017. No. 4. pp. 7–11.
13. Boldyrev V. V., Avvakumov E. G. Fundamental grounds of mechanical activation, mechanical synthesis and mechanical-chemical technology. Novosibirsk : Siberian branch of the Russian academy of sciences. 2009. 343 p.
14. Possible physical-chemical effects of mechanical activation. Available at: http://msd.com.ua/vse-o-penobetone/vozmozhnye-fiziko-ximicheskie-effekty-mexanoaktivacii/
15. Khodakov G. S. Fine comminution of building materials. М. : Stroyizdat. 1972. 240 p.
16. Avvakumov E. G. Mechanical methods of activation of chemical processes. Novosibirsk : Nauka. 1986. 333 p.
17. Kurdyumov A. V., Malogolovets V. G., Novikov N. V. Polymorphic modifications of carbon and boron nitride. М.: Metallurgiya. 1994.
18. Ubbelode A. V. Graphite and its crystalline compounds. М. : Nauka. 1965. 256 p.
19. Veselovskiy V. S. Coal and carbon construction materials. М. : Nauka. 1966. 225 p.
20. Baranov V. N. Activation of graphite with different crystallinechemical structure for refractories and paints in casting production : thesis of a doct. of techn. sciences. Krasnoyarsk. 2005. 131 p.
21. Mamina L. I., Anikina V. I., Lytkina S. et. al. Influence of the activation time on the parameters of a graphite structure. Russian Journal of Non-Ferrous Metals. 2016. Vol. 57. No. 1. pp. 52–56.
22. Egorov-Tismenko Yu. N. Crystallography and crystallochemistry. М. : KDU. 2005. 589 p.
23. Slipping and twinning deformation. Available at: http://dssp.petrsu.ru/p/tutorial/ftt/Part4/part4_4_1.htm.
24. Nikolaeva E. A. Shifting mechanisms of monocrystals plastic deformation. Perm : Izdatelstvo Permskogo gosudarstvennogo teknicheskogo universiteta. 2011. 51 p.
25. Deformation, fracture and hardening of crystals. Available at: https://ufn.ru/ufn28/ufn28_6/Russian/r286d.pdf.
26. Parameters of mechanical activation and methods of their evaluation. Available at: http://www.crystallography.ru/MA/control.html.

Language of full-text английский
Полный текст статьи Получить