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NATURAL RESOURCES OF KARELIA
ArticleName Resources and geochemistry of groundwater in Karelia
DOI 10.17580/gzh.2019.03.14
ArticleAuthor Borodulina G. S., Levichev M. A.
ArticleAuthorData

Northern Water Problems Institute, Karelian Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Petrozavodsk, Russia:

G. S. Borodulina, Senior Researcher, Associate Professor, Candidate of Geologo-Mineralogical Scientist, bor6805@yandex.ru
M. A. Levichev, Chief Geologist

Abstract

Ample surface water resources suppress use of groundwater in Karelia. Figures of resource potential, undiscovered potential resources and usable resources of groundwater in the Republic are minimal in the northern regions of Russia. In 2018 there are 35 known deposits of fresh groundwater (107 thou m3/day), 80% of reserves fall at the water-bearing strata of the regions in the periphery of artesian basins of the Russian Platform, the rest reserves occur in the cruystalline formations of the Baltic Massif. The upper zone of active water exchange in both structures typically contains fresh water of predominantly hydrocarbonate calcium–magnesium composition. In the bottom zone, more mineralized (up to salt) water of various chemical type—from hydrocarbonate to chloride—forms. Rare centralized water supply intakes are mostly based on water of hydrocarbonate (hydrocarbonate–chloride) sodium composition, which is behind hydrocarbonate calcium water in terms of physiological value, mainly, owing to low hardness. A considerable constraint for use of groundwater is often high content of iron and radon while these elements govern the geochemical province of the Baltic region of mineral water. In the region, there are 3 known deposits of mineral water, only one deposit—ferriginous Marcial Water—is operated. Of severe concern is nitrate contamination of groundwater as population widely use springs and wells.

keywords Republic of Karelia, groundwater, resource potential, chemical composition
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