Journals →  Chernye Metally →  2020 →  #1 →  Back

Metal science and Metallography
ArticleName Features of the use of cast and deformed steel for machine parts
ArticleAuthor A. M. Pesin, T. V. Shveyova, D. O. Pustovoitov

Magnitogorsk State Technical University (Magnitogorsk, Russia):

A. M. Pesin, Dr. Eng., Prof., Dept. of Materials Processing Technologies, e-mail:
T. V. Shveyova, Cand. Eng., Associate Prof., Research Engineer, Scientific and Research Center, e-mail:
D. O. Pustovoitov, Cand. Eng., Associate Prof., Dept. of Materials Processing Technologies, e-mail:


Comparative data have been presented and the example of 35, 40Kh and 30KhN steels shows the advantage of hot-deformed steel semifinished products over cast ones in terms of mechanical properties. The relationship between the resistance of 40Kh steel to brittle fracture at various temperatures and the degree of hot plastic deformation of the metal was shown. High impact toughness in the temperature range from +20 °C to –80 °C is reached for steel 40Kh after compression of the cast metal with a degree of not less than 44 times. When steel is smelted from scrap metal, its structure and properties are signifi cantly affected by impurities of heritable chemical elements, primarily aluminum and vanadium. Heat treatment technologies for cast and deformed semi-finished products from 20GL and 20KhGNM steels were developed and proposed for use in production. For 20GL steel cast products, an effective and easily implemented in the production technology of heat treatment has been proposed. Due to the regulated temperature and time parameters during heating and cooling of castings, a fine-grained structure and a ferrite-pearlite structure in the steel are achieved. Information is provided on the degree of additional deformation of rolled steel in the manufacture of eight forgings for truck parts. Heat treatment of inhomogeneously deformed forgings, including homogenization, austenitization and tempering, ensures the stable formation of a given structure and high mechanical properties over the entire cross section of the products. Examples of the negative influence of segregation in steel on the crack resistance of products were given, especially if the cracks come to the surface of the part.

The studies were carried out at the expense of a grant of the Russian Science Foundation (agreement No. 15-19-10030-P dated April 13, 2018), as well as within the framework of the implementation of Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation dated April 9, 2010 No. 220 (agreement No. 074-02-2018 -329 dated May 16, 2018).

keywords Steel, casting, forging, plastic deformation, microstructure, strength, impact strength, ductility, heat treatment

1. Metallurgical science and heat treatment of steel: reference book; in 3 volumes. Edited by Bernsteyn M. L. And Rahstadt А. G. 4th edition, revised and enlarged. Moscow: Metallurgiya, 1991. 461 p.
2. Dozhdikov V. I., Cherkasov N. V., Vasyutin А. Yu. The influence of technological parameters of continuous casting on the main parameters of the ingot formation. Metallurg. 2019. No. 8. pp. 47–49.
3. Smirnov A. N., Kubersky S. V. About continuous casting of steel at metallurgical microplants. Stal. 2016. No. 2. pp. 16–22.
4. Eldarkhanov А. S., Nuradinov А. S., Vanyukova N. D., Akhtaev S. S.-S. Modern technical solutions for improving the technology of steel continuous casting. Stal. 2018. No. 9. pp. 13–16.
5. Golenkov М. А., Parshin V. М., Chertov А. D. Improvement of the quality of continuously cast billets by predicting and suppressing axial segregation defects. Stal. 2015. No. 5. pp. 39–44.
6. Zinchenko S. А., Ibragimov А. U. Comprehensive basic regulation for assessing the quality of the macrostructure of continuously cast billets at OJSC IZhSTAL. Sovremennye materialy, tekhnika i tekhnologii. 2016. No. 2 (5). pp. 104–109.
7. Schuster A., Raedt H.-W., Takkaya A. E. The fibre flow in steel and its influence on mechanical properties. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Steels in Cars and Trucks (5–9 June 2011). Salzburg, Austria, 2011. pp. 43–50.
8. Shishimirov М. V., Kokhan L. S. Determination of density and mechanical properties of steel during smelting, ladle treatment and continuous casting in an electric steel-smelting shop. Tekhnologiya metallov. 2015. No. 10. pp. 11–14.
9. Fisher L., Bausch J., Hullen I. et. al. The concepts of perspective modernization using tested and approved continuous casting technology. Chernye Metally. 2018. No. 9. pp. 40–47.
10. Cai M., Li Z., Chao Q., Hodgson P. D. A Novel Mo and Nb Microalloyed Medium Mn TRIP Steel with Maximal Ultimate Strength and Moderate Ductility. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A. 2014. Vol. 45. No. 12. pp. 5624–5634.
11. Linzer B., Rimnac А., Bragin S., Yang Bo. Manufacture of improved high-strength steels via Arvedi ESP technology. Chernye Metally. 2017. No. 4. pp. 38–44.
12. Kuziak R., Kawalla R., Waengler S. Advanced high strength steels for automotive industry. Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering. 2008. Vol. 8, Iss. 2. pp. 103–117.
13. Goritsky V. M., Lushkin А. М., Goritsky О. V., Kulyomkin А. М. Effect of sulfur content and structure on the anisotropy coefficient of structural steels impact strength on Mesnager samples. Zavodskaya laboratoriya. Diagnostika materialov. 2014. No. 4. pp. 38–42.
14. GOST 9454–78. Metals. Method for testing the impact strength at low, room and high temperature. Introduced: 01.01.1979.
15. GOST 5639–82. Steels and alloys. Methods for detection and determination of grain size. Introduced: 01.01.1983.
16. Astashchenko V. I., Zapadnova N. N., Mukhametzianova G. F., Shafigullina A. N. Key concepts for production of high-quality parts. IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2017. Vol. 240, Iss. 1. Art. No. 012007.
17. Gliner R. Е., Astashchenko V. I. Introduction to metal quality management. Kazan: Izdatelstvo Kazanskogo universiteta, 2015. 351 p.
18. Shveyova T. V., Pesin A. M., Pustovoytov D. O. Behavior of microalloyed steel at thermal treatment. Solid State Phenomena. 2017. Vol. 265 SSP. pp. 177–180.
19. Astashchenko V. I., Shveev A. I., Shveeva T. V., Khalikov I. N. Method of cast steel heat treatment. Patent RF, No. 2617185. Applied: 13.10.2015. Published: 21.04.2017. Bulletin No. 12.
20. Astashchenko V. I., Yantsen G. I., Ivanovskij S. V. Method for heat treatment of workpieces. Patent RF No. 1301856. Applied: 14.11.1985. Published: 07.04.1987. Bulletin No. 13.
21. Astashchenko V. I., Shveyova T. V., Shveyov A. I. Diagnostics of the properties of steel articles according to the criterion of microhardness. Metal Science and Heat Treatment. 2016. Vol. 58, Iss. 5. pp. 303–307.

Language of full-text russian
Full content Buy