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ArticleName Understanding the regularities of aluminum chloride hexahydrate crystallization from hydrochloric acid solutions resultant from leaching of Russian kaolin clays. Part 1. Process kinetics
DOI 10.17580/tsm.2020.01.07
ArticleAuthor Pak V. I., Kirov S. S., Mamzurina O. I., Nalivayko A. Yu.

National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Moscow, Russia:

V. I. Pak, Postgraduate Student, Department of Non-Ferrous Metals and Gold, e-mail:
S. S. Kirov, Associate Professor, Department of Non-Ferrous Metals and Gold, Candidate of Technical Sciences, e-mail:
O. I. Mamzurina, Department of Non-Ferrous Metals Science, e-mail:
A. Yu. Nalivayko, Senior Lecturer, Department of Non-Ferrous Metals and Gold, Candidate of Technical Sciences, e-mail:


This paper examines the regularities of crystallization of aluminum chloride hexahydrate from the hydrochloric acid solutions resultant from leaching of Russian kaolin clays. This technique is based on reduced solubility of aluminium chloride combined with increased concentration of solvent attained through the introduction of hydrogen chloride gas. Values of the crystallization induction period have been determined in relation to certain processing regimes. Following a series of tests, it was found that the use of isothermal regime led to an 8-minute shorter induction period. Relationships were established between the concentrations of aluminium and chlorine in the system and the process time. Chlorine dissolution rates have been determined. They are 61% for isothermal regime, and 46% for polythermal regime. The authors looked at how different processing regimes impacted the degree of aluminum chloride hexahydrate crystallization (i.e. deposition rate). The maximum crystallization degree of 97% was attained in isothermal regime. The authors looked at how different processing regimes influenced the rate of aluminum chloride hexahydrate crystallization. A mathematical model of the AlCl3·6H2O crystallization was built to help predict the process efficiency when being a part of the proposed technique. The obtained data were used to calculate the process activation energy referring to aluminium chloride hexahydrate crystallization. For the given conditions, the activation energy is 6 kJ/mol, which may indicate a diffusion process.

keywords Hydrochloric acid, crystallization, aluminium chloride, kaolin clay, aluminium chloride solution, hydrogen chloride, kinetics, induction period, activation energy, crystallization rate, crystallization degree

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