Journals →  Tsvetnye Metally →  2020 →  #8 →  Back

ArticleName The structure of AlFe5 master alloys produced from recyclable scrap steel and its effect on the properties of aluminium alloys
DOI 10.17580/tsm.2020.08.10
ArticleAuthor Nikitin K. V., Nikitin V. I., Deev V. B., Timoshkin I. Yu.

Samara State Technical University, Samara, Russia:

K. V. Nikitin, Dean of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Metallurgy and Transport, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, e-mail:
V. I. Nikitin, Head of the Department of Casting and High-Efficiency Technology, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, e-mail:
I. Yu. Timoshkin, Department of Casting and High-Efficiency Technology, Сandidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, e-mail:


Wuhan Textile University, Wuhan, China1 ; National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Moscow, Russia2:
V. B. Deev, Professor at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Automation at the Wuhan Textile University, Lead Expert at the Department of Metal Forming1,2, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, e-mail:


Due to growing production of aluminium alloys and development of resourcesaving production, great amounts of waste products are widely used in the production process. Use of recyclable iron-containing waste in cast and wrought aluminium alloy production diverts the common traditional understanding that iron can affect the cast structure. At the same time, for the low diffusion capacity of iron in aluminium, it would be interesting to consider Al – Fe alloys. This paper describes the results of a study that examined how the structure of AlFe5 master alloys influence the structure and properties of Al – Si – Cu (AK12M2) and Al – Cu – Mg (AK4) alloys. The test AlFe5 master alloys were prepared by chopping waste steel wire into 1 and 3 mm pieces. The alloy melts solidified in a crucible and a water-cooled roller mould. Before pouring, some of the alloy melts were exposed to electromagnetic acoustic fields for additional conditioning. The authors looked at how the size of the steel pieces and the way they were obtained changed the structure of the test master alloys. A relationship was established between the size of the material and the dimensions and quantity of FeAl3 intermetallics. In all experiments, the bigger FeAl3 intermetallics were found in alloys produced with 3 mm steel pieces. Exposure to electromagnetic acoustic fields would result in 3–5 times smaller FeAl3 intermetallics while their quantity would increase by 4–10 times. The chemical compositions of alloys obtained from fine-crystalline master alloys proved to be in compliance with applicable regulations. The principal phases in the resultant alloys had a fine-dispersed structure. The eutectic silicon in the АК12М2 alloy became 1.4 times smaller, while the dendritic aluminium in the АК4 alloy structure became 1.65 times smaller. The optimized structure led to improved physical and mechanical properties of as-cast alloys. Thus, their ultimate strength increased by 10–13%, while their specific elongation almost doubled. The results of the study indicate that recyclable scrap steel wire can be effectively used in the production of aluminium alloys.
This research study was funded by the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia as part of a governmental assignment; Project ID: 0718-2020-0030.

keywords Scrap steel wire, recycling, AlFe5 master alloys, electromagnetic acoustic fields, aluminium alloys, microstructure, mechanical properties

1. Nappi C. The global aluminium industry 40 years from 1972. World Aluminium. 2013. (Accessed: 10.08.2020).
2. Dudin M. N., Voykova N. A., Frolova E. E., Artemieva J. A., Rusakova E. P. et al. Modern trends and challenges of development of global aluminum industry. Metalurgija. 2017. Vol. 56. pp. 255–258.
3. Nikitin V. I., Nikitin K. V. Heredity in cast alloys. Moscow : Mashinostroenie-1, 2005. 474 p.
4. Nikitin K. V., Nikitin V. I., Timoshkin I. Yu. Control over the quality of aluminium alloy castings on the basis of structural heredity. Moscow : Radunitsa, 2015. 227 p.
5. Selyanin I. F., Deev V. B., Kukharenko A. V. Resource- and environmentsaving production of secondary aluminium alloys. Izvestiya vuzov. Tsvetnaya metallurgiya. 2015. No. 2. pp. 20–25.
6. Khraisat W., Abu Jadayil W. Strengthening aluminum scrap by alloying with iron. Jordan Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering. 2010. Vol. 4, No. 3. pp. 372–377.
7. Muneer Baig, Hany Rizk Ammar, Asiful Hossain Seikh. Thermo-mechanical responses of nanocrystalline Al – Fe alloy processed using mechanical alloying and high frequency heat induction sintering. Materials Science & Engineering A. 2016. No. 655. pp. 132–141.
8. Kamguo Kamga H., Larouche D., Bournane M., Rahem A. Solidification of aluminum-copper B206 alloys with iron and silicon additions. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A. 2010. Vol. 41. pp. 2844–2855.
9. Brodova I. G., Popel P. S., Eskin G. I. Liquid metal processing: application to aluminium alloy production. N-Y. Gordon&Breach. L., 2004.
10. Deev V. B., Ponomareva K. V., Prikhodko O. G., Smetanyuk S. V. Effect of melt superheating and pouring temperatures on the quality of aluminium alloy castings produced by lost-foam casting. Izvestiya vuzov. Tsvetnaya metallurgiya. 2017. No. 3. pp. 65–71.
11. Wang J., He S., Sun B., Zhou Y., Guo Q., Nishio M. A356 alloy refined by melt thermal treatment. International Journal of Cast Metals Research. 2001. No. 14. pp. 165–168.
12. Yang W., Yang X., Ji S. Melt superheating on the microstructure and mechanical properties of diecast Al – Mg – Si – Mn alloy. Metals and Materials International. 2015. Vol. 21, No. 2. pp. 382–390.
13. Liu Z., Liu X. M., Xie M. Microstructure and properties of in situ Al – Si – Mg2Si composite prepared by melt superheating. Applied Mechanics and Materials. 2011. Vol. 52–54. pp. 750–754.
14. Li Q. L., Xia T. D., Lan Y. F., Li P. F. Effects of melt superheat treatment on microstructure and wear behaviours of hypereutectic Al – 20Si alloy. Materials Science and Technology. 2014. Vol. 30, No. 7. pp. 835–841.
15. Eskin G. I. Effect of cavitation in melt treatment on the structure and properties of cast and wrought light alloys. Vestnik RAEN. 2010. No. 3. pp. 82–89.
16. Han Y., Li K., Wang J., Sun B. Influence of high-intensity ultrasound on grain refining performance of Al – 5Ti – 1B master alloy on aluminium. Materials Science and Engineering: A. 2005. Vol. 405. pp. 306–312.
17. Jian X., Xu H., Meek T. T., Han Q. Effect of power ultrasound on solidification of aluminium A356 alloy. Materials Letters. 2005. No. 59. pp. 190–193.
18. Bhojak K., Mavani A., Bhatt N. Ultrasonic Treatment to Molten FEM©™ Aluminum Alloy and Effects of Ultrasound Treatment Melt Temperature on Hardness. International Journal of Research in Advance Engineering. 2013. Vol. 1, Iss. 3. pp. 1–12.
19. Zi Bing-Tao, Ba Qi-Xian, Cui Jian-Zhong, Bai Yu-Guang, Na Xing-Jie. Effect of strong pulsed electromagnetic field on metal's solidified structure. Acta Physica Sinica. 2000. Vol. 49, No. 5. pp. 1010–1013.
20. Nikitin K. V., Nikitin V. I., Timoshkin I. Yu., Glushchenkov V. A., Chernikov D. G. Processing of melts with pulsed magnetic fields to control the structure and properties of commercial silumins. Izvestiya vuzov. Tsvetnaya metallurgiya. 2016. No. 2. pp. 34–42.
21. Krymsky V., Shaburova N. Applying of pulsed electromagnetic processing of melts in laboratory and industrial conditions. Materials. 2018. Vol. 11, Iss. 6. p. 954.
22. Cao Y., Chen L., Zhou Q. Effect of pulsed magnetic field on solidification structure of 7075 alloy. Special Casting and Nonferrous Alloys. 2013. Vol. 33, Iss. 10. pp. 964–968.
23. Timoshkin I. Yu., Nikitin K. V., Nikitin V. I., Deev V. B. Effect of electromagnetic acoustic fields on the structure and properties of Al – Si alloys. Izvestiya vuzov. Tsvetnaya metallurgiya. 2016. No. 3. pp. 28–33.
24. Zhang L., Li W., Yao J. P., Qiu H. Effects of pulsed magnetic field on microstructures and morphology of the primary phase in semisolid A356 Al slurry. Materials Letters. 2012. Vol. 66, Iss. 1. pp. 190–192.
25. Konovalov S. V., Danilov V. I., Zuev L. B., Filip'ev R. A., Gromov V. E. On the influence of the electrical potential on the creep rate of aluminum. Physics of the Solid State. 2007. Vol. 49, Iss. 8. pp. 1457–1459.
26. Zuev L. B., Danilov V. I., Konovalov S. V., Filipev R. A., Gromov V. E. Influence of contact potential difference and electric potential on the microhardness of metals. Physics of the Solid State. 2009. Vol. 51, Iss. 6. pp. 1137–1141.
27. GOST 1583–93. Aluminium casting alloys. Specifications. Introduced: 01.01.1997.
28. GOST 4784–2019. Aluminium and wrought aluminium alloys. Grades. Introduced: 01.09.2019.
29. GOST 1050–2013. Metal products from nonalloyed structural quality and special steels. General specification. Introduced: 01.01.2015.
30. GOST 1497–84. Metals. Methods of tension test. Introduced: 01.01.1986.

Language of full-text russian
Full content Buy