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ArticleName Calculation of a lance in a protective shell for the conversion of nickel and copper matte and recommendations for its application
DOI 10.17580/tsm.2018.05.04
ArticleAuthor Korol Yu. A., Naboychenko S. S.

JSC “Russian Copper Company”, Ekaterinburg, Russia:

Yu. A. Korol, Vice President, e-mail:


Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, Russia:
S. S. Naboychenko, Head of a Chair of Non-ferrous Metals Metallurgy


The wide use of converting processes for the processing of copper, copper-nickel and nickel matte determines the relevance of searching for ways to improve the construction of converters and especially protection of refractory lining. The specific costs reducing for oxygen obtaining and high productivity of oxygen plants achieving expands the possibilities of processing raw materials and solid materials melting in the melt. In its turn it stimulates the development of melting units with long term campaigns in the conditions of aggressive environment. The lances usage in a protective shell (LPS) from the high-pressure air, inert gas (nitrogen, argon), natural gas or steam-air mixtures remains a promising direction. In Russia an implementation of this direction started in ferrous metallurgy in the middle of XX century after publication and experimental works of I. P. Bardin, S. G. Afanasev, M. M. Shumov, Z. D. Epshteyn and N. I. Mozgovoy. Abroad Guy Savard and Robert Lee (Canada) were the first who applied the lances in a protective shell. In non-ferrous metallurgy, first experiments on theoretical substantiation and practical use were carried out in the 1980s for lead, nickel and copper metallurgy. In China, at present time, processes with LPS usage have been implemented in more than 40 plants, and the specialists of this country are actively implementing this technology (SKS) in newly constructed plants. An SKS distinguishing characteristic is an application of air and nitrogen under high pressure, which allows to avoid mechanisms and devices for lances cleaning, and to use a blow enriched with oxygen. In Russia, LPS was used for the first time at the “Yuzhuralnickel” concern in the 1980s. The introduction of this equipment on 13 converters allowed stabilizing the work of the converter site, several times increasing the campaign of converters and improving the conditions for their exploitation. At the “Yuzhuralnickel” plant the LPS feature is application of air blow and a protective low pressure medium (0.06–0.12 MPa) without a cardinal and costly modification of the existing converters construction. In connection with the lack of available methods for calculating the structures and parameters of LPS, which are working with low energy parameters, and accordingly operating costs, this paper proposes a technique for LPS calculating for nickel, copper-nickel and copper conversion processes. Also this paper gives recommendations for LPS using and improvement.

keywords Converter, nickel matte, lance, protective shell, melt temperature, refractory lining, slag, matte, gas

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