Journals →  Tsvetnye Metally →  2018 →  #6 →  Back

ArticleName Variations in cemenation reactions for different active Ni powders
DOI 10.17580/tsm.2018.06.11
ArticleAuthor Bolshakova O. V., Bolshakov S. V., Belousova N. V., Sinko A. V.

PJSC “MMC “Norilsk Nickel”, Polar Division, Norilsk, Russia:

O. V. Bolshakova, Head of Laboratory, Center for Engineering Support of Production, e-mail:
S. V. Bolshakov, Head of Laboratory, Center for Engineering Support of Production


Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk, Russia:
N. V. Belousova, Head of the Department, Chair of Metallurgy of Non-Ferrous Metals


Norilsk Industrial Institute, Norilsk, Russia:
A. V. Sinko, Associate Professor


Multi-year studies at the Polar Division of Norilsk Nickel demonstrated the possibility to produce Ni powder reagent for purification by cementation in fluidized-bed (FBF) — rotary tube furnace (RTF) system with coal as reducing agent. However, the pilot tests of the powder application for Cu-removal by cementation in agitating reactors showed that only the considerable increase (40–60%) in powder specific consumption would provide the appropriate Cu removal, which in turn would inhibit the production of cemented copper of proper quality. Meanwhile the active gas-phase reduction Ni powder used at that moment provided the required anolyte purification and proper quality of cemented copper with low powder consumption. The article reviews the mechanisms for two-phase interaction during cementation with Ni-powders of different types in order to draw up recommendations on the pilot powder application. The powder surface maturity is found to impose diffusion limitation either in solution or in powder. The examination of cemented copper particles showed that using of the active gas-phase reduction Ni-powder resulted in the Cu dendrite growth only on one site of the particle whereas the pilot powder promotes growth of Cu in layers over the whole surface of the particle. Analysis of particle size distribution revealed lower particle size of cemented copper samples produced with the gas-phase reduction powder compared to those produced with the pilot powder or the particle size of initial active Ni powder. The solid-phase reduction powder appeared to inhibit the cementation reaction making no reasons to employ it in agitating cementation reactors with 30 min. powder retention time.

keywords Active Ni powder, solid phase reduction, gas-phase reduction; Ni anolyte; cementation; kinetics

1. Danilov M. P., Gladkov A. S., Nazmutdinov Sh. G. Preparation of active nickel powder in a tubular rotating furnace. Tsvetnye Metally. 1998. No. 10/11. pp. 40–43.
2. Becker V. G., Fomichev V. B., Gritskikh V. B., Ryabushkin M. I., Danilov M. P. Advanced technology for obtaining an active nickel powder for nickel electrolyte purification. Tsvetnye Metally. 2009. No. 8. pp. 19–23.
3. Bolshakova O. V., Salimzhanova E. V., Ryabushkin M. I., Danchenko E. V., Zhilichkin S. I. Development of the technology of obtaining and using an active nickel powder for cementation treatment of nickel electrolyte from copper ions. Collection of theses and reports in V International conference of "Non-Ferrous Metals – 2013". Krasnoyarsk: Light Metals, 2013. pp. 247–251.
4. Bolshakova O. V., Belogolovkin A. N., Salimzhanova E. V., Maslovskiy A. N. Development of the process to produce active Ni powders by means of solidphase reduction of Ni oxide by semianthracite. Tsvetnye Metally. 2015. No. 6. pp. 39–43.
5. Dib A., Makhloufi L., Mass transfer correlation of simultaneous removal by cementa tion of nickel and cobalt from sulphate industrial solution containing copper. Part II: Onto zinc powder. Chemical Engineering Journal. 2006. Vol. 123, No. 1/2. pp. 53–58.
6. Safarzadeh M. S., Moradkhani D., Mehdi O.-I. Determination of the optimum conditions for the cementation of cadmium with zinc powder in sulfate medium. Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification. 2007. Vol. 46, No. 12. pp. 1332–1340.
7. Demirkiran N., Künkül A. Recovering of copper with metallic aluminum. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China. 2011. Vol. 21, No. 12. pp. 2778–2782.
8. Jhajharia R., Jain D., Sengar A., Goyal A., Soni P. R. Synthesis of copper powder by mechanically activated cementation. Powder Technology. 2016. Vol. 301. P. 10–15.
9. Babenko S. A., Pinigin S. A., Tasoev R. I. Investigation of the copper carburizing process by iron chips. Proceeding of Tomsk Polytechnical University named after Kirov S. M. 1976. Vol. 275. pp. 92–95.
10. Agrawal R. D., Kapoor M. L. Theoretical considerations of the cementation of copper with iron. Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. 1982. No. 4. pp. 106–111.
11. Lamya R. M., Lorenzen L. A study of the factors influencing the kinetics of copper cementation during atmospheric leaching of converter matte. Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. 2005. No. 1. P. 21–27.
12. Alkatsev M. I. Processes of carburizing in non-ferrous metallurgy. Moscow : Metallurgiya, 1981. 114 p.
13. Brown M., Dollymore D., Galway A. Reactions of solids. Moscow : Mir, 1983. 360 p.
14. Knotko A. V., Presnyakov I. A., Tretyakov Yu. D. Chemistry of a solid. Moscow : Academiya, 2006. 304 p.
15. Rozovskiy A. Ya. Kinetics of topochemical reactions. Moscow : Khimiya, 1974. 220 p.
16. MacKinnon D. J., Ingraham T. R., Kerby R. Copper carburization of nickel discs. Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly. 1971. Vol. 10, No. 3. pp. 165–169.
17. Damaskin B. B., Petriy O. A. Introduction to electrochemical kinetics. Moscow : Vysshaya shkola, 1975. 415 p.
18. Mukhlenov I. P., Sazhin B. S., Frolov V. F. Calculation of boiling bed apparatus. Leningrad : Khimiya, 1986. 351 p.

Language of full-text russian
Full content Buy