Journals →  Tsvetnye Metally →  2018 →  #7 →  Back

ArticleName Use of natural gas in tuyeres with protective coating
DOI 10.17580/tsm.2018.07.07
ArticleAuthor Korol Yu. A., Naboychenko S. S., Gulyaev S. V.

JSC “Russian Copper Company”, Ekaterinburg, Russia:

Yu. A. Korol, Vice-President, e-mail:


Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B. N. Eltsin, Ekaterinburg, Russia:
S. S. Naboychenko, Head of the Department of Metallurgy of Non-ferrous Metals


PJSC “Yuzhuralnikel Combinate”, Orsk, Russia:
S. V. Gulyaev, Chief Engineer


The conversion of nickel mattes causes the formation of slags enriched with nonferrous metals; this require compulsory processing in another metallurgical unit or debugging directly in the converter using a variety of known techniques. One of the ways to impoverish slag is mixing of the liquid phases, followed by settling and separate drainage of depleted slag and enriched mass. This technological operation is practiced in converters, which are analogous to the converters of the set and the firing of the finshtein. One of the drawbacks of this technological method is the use of additional converters and the number of them is comparable to the number of equipment on the set operations. This is exacerbated by the relatively short campaign of depletion converters due to the destruction of the refractory lining in the area of the tuyeres. It is proposed to equip the lean-to-smoke converters in a protective shell of nitrogen or natural gas to minimize the economic losses associated with the maintenance of equipment. This allowed to increase the campaign of the converter from 40–50 to 70 days. Research and industrial testing using natural gas as a protective environment gave an additional increase in the campaign of the depletion converter to 105 days. The introduction of tuyeres in a protective shell from natural gas gave the following characteristics: (a) uniform wear of the tuyere belt of the converter without the formation of characteristic “holes” in place of the tuyeres, (b) a decrease in temperature at the tip of the tuyere due to the decomposition of natural gas, (c) a decrease in the partial pressure of oxygen in the blast at the time of the opening of the torch led to a decrease in the content of non-ferrous metals in the slag. The development and implementation of a new tuyere design for depletion converters in the current production allowed not only to prolong their campaign, but also to reduce the volume of domestic metallurgical turnovers by increasing the efficiency of depletion by mixing liquid phases.

keywords Tuyere in protective shell, converter, conversion, nickel matte, nickel slag, slag depletion, natural gas, nitrogen, blast, nickel, cobalt

1. Coursol P., Mackey P. J., Kapusta J. P. T., Cardona V. N. Energy Consumption in Copper Smelting: A new Asian Horse in the Race. JOM. 2015. Vol. 67, No. 5. pp. 1066–1074.
2. Kapusta J. P. T. Submerged gas jet penetration: A study of bubbling versus jetting and side versus bottom blowing in copper bath smelting. JOM. 2017. Vol. 69, No. 6. pp. 970–979.
3. Bustos A. A., Kapusta J. P. High Oxygen Shrouded Injection in Copper and Nickel Converters. Proceedings of the Brimacombe Memorial Symposium. Ed.: G. A. Irons, A. W. Cramb. Montreal, QC : The Metallurgical Society of CIM, 2000. pp. 107–124.
4. Dolabella R. A., Terra E. F. Increasing refractory life in a Pierce-Smith converter through numerical simulations. The United International Technical Conference on Refractories. Santiago, Chile. 2014.
5. Kapusta J. P., Stickling H., Tai W. High Oxygen Shrouded Injection at Falconbridge: Five Years of Operation. Converter and Fire Refining Practices. Ed.: A. Ross, T. Warner, K. Scholey. Warrendale, PA : TMS, 2005. pp. 47–60.
6. Salt B., Cerilli E. Evolution of the Converter Aisle at Xstrata Nickel’s Sudbury Smelter. Proceedings of the International Peirce-Smith Converting Centennial Symposium. Ed.: J. P. T. Kapusta, A. E. M. Warner. Warrendale, PA : TMS, 2009. pp. 135–149.
7. Salt B., Cerilli E. Converter aisle improvements at Xstrata Nickel’s Sudbury smelter. Proceedings of the Pyrometallurgy of Nickel and Cobalt Symposium, 48th Conference of Metallurgists. Ed.: J. Liu, J. Peacey, M. Barati, S. Kashani-Nejad, B. Davis. Montreal, QC : TMS, 2009. pp. 333–349.
8. Kaixi Jiang, Lan Li, Yaping Fend, Haibei Wang, Bang Wei. The Development of China’s Primary Copper Smelting Technologies. T. T. Chen. Honorary Symposium on Hydrometallurgy, Electrometallurgy and Materials Characterization. Ed.: S. Wang, J. E. Dutrizac, M. L. Free, J. Y. Hwang, D. Kim. Warrendale, PA : TMS, 2012. pp. 167–176.
9. Baojun Zhao, Zhixiang Cui, Zhi Wang. A New Copper Smelting Technology – Bottom Blown Oxygen Furnace Developed at Dongying Fangyuan Nonferrous Metals. Fourth International Symposium on High-Temperature Metallurgical Processing. Ed.: T. Jiang, J. Y. Hwang, P. J. Mackey, O. Yucel, G. Zhou. Warrendale, PA : TMS, 2013. pp. 3–10.
10. Okunev A. I., Kostenetskiy V. P., Tanutrov I. N. Physico-chemical and technological foundations of depletion of slag melts by reducing sulfide complexes. Research and development of technology for extraction of nonferrous metals from metallurgical slags. Sverdlovsk : UNTS AN USSR, 1977. pp. 3–63.
11. Klushin D. N. Sulfidation of non-ferrous metals. Moscow : Metallurgiya, 1968. 212 p.
12. Barsukov N. M., Korol Yu. A., Rusakov M. R., Galnbek A. A., Pashkovskiy A. A., Pronin A. F. Processing of nickel matte in horizontal converters with tuyeres in the protective shell. Tsvetnye Metally. 1992. No. 3. pp. 12, 13.
13. Galnbek A. A., Barsukov N. M., Rusakov M. R., Yezhov E. I., Nedvetskiy E. P. Features of blowing a liquid by a tuyere with a protective shell. Autogenous and autoclave processes in copper-nickel production. Leningrad : Gipronikel, 1987. pp. 57–62.
14. Korol Yu. A., Naboychenko S. S. Calculation of a tuyere in a protective shell for the conversion of nickel and copper matte, recommendations for its application. Tsvetnye Metally. 2018. No. 5. pp. 23–32.
15. Korol Yu. A., Naboychenko S. S., Gulyaev S. V. Practice of using tuyeres in a protective shell during conversion. Tsvetnye Metally. 2018. No. 6. pp. 14–20.
16. Kazantsev I. G. Mechanics of a gas jet in a Bessemer bath. Stal. 1940. No. 1. pp. 12–16.
17. Arsentev P. P., Kvitko M. P. Converter process with bottom blowing. Moscow : Metallurgiya, 1983. 128 p.
18. Tsemekhman L. Sh., Ezhov E. I., Pevzner M. I. et al. Autogenous melting of sulphide copper-nickel ores with the use of immersed oxygen into the melt. Pyrometallurgical processes in nickel and cobalt technology. Leningrad : Gipronikel, 1978. pp. 21–24.
19. Reznik I. D., Ermakov G. P., Shneerson Ya. M. Nickel. Vol. 2. Moscow : Nauka i tekhnologii, 2001. 467 p.

Language of full-text russian
Full content Buy