Journals →  Chernye Metally →  2021 →  #4 →  Back

ArticleName On uniqueness of thermophysical properties and prospects of cast iron with vermicular graphite for internal combustion engines
DOI 10.17580/chm.2021.04.09
ArticleAuthor A. G. Panov, D. A. Gurtovoy, I. F. Shaekhova

Naberezhnye Chelny Institute of Kazan Federal University (Naberezhnye Chelny, Russia):

A. G. Panov, Dr. Eng., Associate Prof., Dept. of Materials, Technologies and Quality, e-mail:
I. F. Shaekhova, Senior Lecturer, Dept. of Materials, Technologies and Quality, e-mail:

PJSC “KamAZ” (Naberezhnye Chelny, Russia):

D. A. Gurtovoy, Cand. Eng., Chief Metallurgist, e-mail:


The article is devoted to the problem of implementation new cast irons into mechanical engineering, namely, cast iron with vermicular graphite (CGI) for the manufacture of parts for engines operating under thermomechanical stress. The article presents the results of the analysis of the CGI modern situation. It is shown that the serial production of engineering products in the world began relatively recently due to the development of reliable technology of cast iron modifying for vermicular graphite (VG) only by the end of the XX century. The use of CGI in mechanical engineering in Russia is extremely limited mainly because of outdated inaccurate and even erroneous information about its properties. The data of own research of microstructure, thermal conductivity and strength of cast iron obtained with the use of modern methods and techniques of control are presented. It is shown that the thermal conductivity of CGI may significantly differ within the grades regulated by the obsolete domestic standard GOST 28394-89 which, inter alia, requires reworking for this reason. All investigated microstructures of CGI have thermal conductivity in the temperature interval from 22 °C to 300 °C varying within no more than 5 %. At high and irregular share of sphere graphite (SG) with temperature growth thermal conductivity can grow a little, with decrease of SG share its growth slows down, and since ~200 ºС it starts to fall. At a high share of VG more than 90 % the thermal conductivity starts to fall from ~100 °С, but by 300 °С the fall is no more than 10 %, which is much less than the fall in the same temperature range of the thermal conductivity of lamellar graphite iron (GI) more than 30 %. The difference in thermal conductivities between the perlitic gray cast iron and CGI with a low and medium share of SG already at temperatures higher than 200 °C becomes commensurate with the error of measurement, and at 300 °C practically disappears. At the same time, in the presence of a high SG share in the structure of CGI its thermal conductivity at 300 °С remains considerably lower than that of the perlitic gray cast iron, the difference being ~30 %.

keywords Cast iron, vermicular graphite, nodular graphite, lamellar graphite, thermal conductivity, microstructure, strength, internal combustion engine, cylinder head, digital methods

1. K. Millis, A. Gagnebin, N. Pilling. Cast Ferrous Alloy. Patent USA, No. 2485760 USA. 1949.
2. K. Millis, A. Gagnebin, N. Pilling. Gray Cast Iron Having Improved Properties. Patent USA. No. 2485761.1949.
3. Sherman А. D. Iron: reference book. Edited by Sherman А. D. and Zhukov А. А. Moscow: Metallurgiya, 1991. 576 p.
4. Sintercast. Technical Papers – English: Compacted Graphite Iron – Mechanical and Physical Properties for Engine Design. — [Electronic resource] Available at: (accessed: 12.03.2020).
5. Douson S., Panov А. G., Gumerov I. F., Panfilov E. V., Gurtovoy D. А. et. al. Experience of large-scale production of high-quality automobile castings from cast iron with vermicular graphite. Liteyshchik Rossii. 2018. No. 4. pp. 8–16.
6. Handbook of cast iron: reference book. Edited by Girshovich N. G. Leningrad: Mashinostroenie, 1978. 758 p.
7. Douson S., Panov А. G., Gurtovoy D. А., Anikin S. А. Technology of stable obtaining of vermicular graphite in mass production castings. Liteynoe proizvodstvo. 2018. No. 4. pp. 7–12.
8. Panov A. G., Shaekhova I. F., Ryzhkova S. A., Degtyaryova N. G., Ivanova V. A. About computer calculation error of vermicular graphite share in microstructure of CGI. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2020. Vol. 915, Iss. 1. 012044.
9. Sintercast. Engineered Propulsion Systems leverages CGI for diesel aviation engine. [Electronic resource] Available at: ; (accessed: 20.02.2021).
10. Korolev S. P., Mikhaylovskiy V. М., Sheshko А. G. Control of structure formation of cast iron with vermicular graphite in castings of steel molds. Metall i lityo Ukrainy. 2014. No. 7. pp. 14–18.
11. Leushin I. О., Chistyakov D. G. Graphite phase forming in crystallization of cast iron for its consequent thermal cycle loads. Chernye Metally. 2016. No. 2. pp. 23–27.
12. GOST 28394–89. Vermicular graphite iron for castings. Grades. Introduced: 01.01.1991.
13. ISO 16112:2017(E) Compacted (vermicular) graphite cast irons. Classification. Second edition. Geneva. 2017.
14. Trinev А. V., Kalantay V. I. Calculated modeling of the optimal thermal state of the cylinder liner of a high-speed diesel engine. Dvigateli vnutrennego sgoraniya. 2012. No. 1. pp. 35–40.
15. GOST 3443–87. Cast iron castings with graphite of different form. Methods of structure determination. Introduced: 01.07.1988.
16. GOST 1412–85. Flake graphite for castings. Grades. Introduced: 01.01.1987.
17. GOST 1497–84. Metals. Methods of tension test. Introduced: 01.01.1986.
18. Sivkova Т. А., Gusev А. О., Gubarev S. V., Britsheva А. V., Samoylova А. Yu., Kadushnikov R. М. Features of graphite microstructure control in cast irons by automatic methods. Metallurgiya mashinostroeniya. 2018. No. 2. pp. 34–38.
19. Method for measuring thermal conductivity, heat conductivity, specific heat of materials based on metals and nonmetals. MVI No. Yekaterinburg: IMET UrO RAN, 2009. 18 p.
20. Girshovich N. G., Kosnikov G. А., Nosov V. N. Properties, production technology and areas of application of cast iron with vermicular graphite. Leningrad: LDNTP, 1981. 20 p.
21. Holmgren D. Review of thermal conductivity of cast iron. International Journal of Cast Metals Research. 2005. Vol. 18, Iss. 6. pp. 331–345.
22. Wu Y., Li J., Yang Z., Ma Z. et al. Computational assessment of thermal conductivity of compacted graphite cast iron. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering. 2019. Vol. 2019. ID 8562102.
23. Jalava K., Soivio K., Laine J., Orkas J. Elevated temperature thermal conductivities of some as-cast and austempered cast irons. Materials Science and Technology. 2017. Vol. 34, Iss. 3. pp. 1–7.
24. Ma Z. J., Wen Q., Gao P. H. et al. Experimental assessment of interfacial contact thermal conductance between graphite and matrix in cast iron. International Journal of Cast Metals Research. 2018. Vol. 31, Iss. 4. pp. 230–236.
25. Matsushita T., Saro A. G., Elmquist L., Jarfors A. E. W. On the thermal conductivity of CGI and SGI cast irons. International Journal of Cast Metals Research. 2017. Vol. 31, Iss. 3. pp. 135–143.
26. Matsushita T., Ghassemali E., Saro A., Elmquist L., Jarfors A. On thermal expansion and density of CGI and SGI cast irons. Metals. 2015. Vol. 5, Iss. 2. pp. 1000–1019.

Language of full-text russian
Full content Buy