Journals →  Tsvetnye Metally →  2021 →  #5 →  Back

ArticleName An optimized process of drying titanium pellets in a tunnel kiln
DOI 10.17580/tsm.2021.05.12
ArticleAuthor Rutkovskiy A. L., Salikhov Z. G., Kovaleva M. A., Bakhteev E. M.

North Caucasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (State University of Technology), Vladikavkaz, Russia:

A. L. Rutkovskiy, Professor at the Department of Non-Ferrous Metallurgy and Automation of Metallurgical Processes, Doctor of Technical Sciences, e-mail:

E. M. Bakhteev, Postgraduate Student at the Department of Non-Ferrous Metallurgy and Automation of Metallurgical Processes


Institute of Control Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia:
Z. G. Salikhov, Principal Researcher, Professor, Doctor of Technical Sciences, e-mail:


Vladikavkaz Branch of the Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Vladikavkaz, Russia:
M. A. Kovaleva, Associate Professor at the Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Candidate of Technical Sciences, e-mail:


This paper examines the problem of modelling the titanium pellets drying process with the aim to find an optimum processing mode. For this, a mathematical operator was built that can translate the starting representation point in the parameter space into the end point along a given path. The key regularities of the titanium pellets drying process were examined, and conditions — defined that would allow to minimize the moisture content in the product over a time period specified in the statement of work avoiding consuming more power. A mathematical and computer models were developed to optimize the process of drying a flowing dense multi-layered mass of titanium pellets. These models helped optimize the energy and resource efficiency of this complex dynamic thermal process. The obtained results were applied when calculating a pellets drying process that would be energy efficient in a tunnel kiln. It was found that the optimum multi-layer drying mode is associated with a reduced energy consumption, a higher quality of the final product, and a lower return rate. This resulted in a minimum moisture content in titanium pellets reached in the time period as specified in the statement of work, with no need for additional power.

keywords Thermal system, thermal process, drying, optimization, pellets, titanium, energy and resource efficiency, tunnel kiln

1. Krivonosov V. A., Pirmatov D. S. Pellet firing process modelled by kiln zone for process optimization. Bulletin of the Voronezh State Technical University. 2010. No. 5. Available at: (Accessed: 07.01.2020).
2. Majercak S. Peletizacia jemnozrnnych materialov. Bratislava : “Alfa” vydavatelstvo technickej a ekonomickej literatary, 1976. 232 p.
3. Dartnell J. Effect of Burden Productivity and efficiency. Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute. 1969. Vol. 27, No. 3. pp. 282–293.

4. Krivonosov V. A., Pirmatov D. S. The pellet firing process optimized in the control system of a conveyor-type kiln. Engineering Journal of Don. 2013. No. 3. Available at: (Accessed: 07.12.2019).
5. Lobova K. V. Modelling the effect of heat treatment on the weight of pellets by kiln zone. Bulletin of the Pryazovskyi State Technical University. Series: Engineering Sciences. 2017. No. 35. Available at: (Accessed: 07.01.2020).
6. Korthas B., Hunger I., Pschebezin V. et al. Hearth protection in blast furnace operation by injection of TiO2 materials. Technical Steel Research Series, European Commission. Luxembourg, 2007. 140 p.
7. Komiyama K. M., Guo B.-Y., Zoughbi H. Numerical analysis of titanium compounds in blast furnace hearth during titania addition. Steel Research International. 2014. No. 6. pp. 592–603.
8. Yuriev B. P., Goltsev V. A. Understanding the thermophysical properties of Kachkanar titanium magnetite pellets. Izvestiya vuzov. Chernaya metallurgiya. 2016. Vol. 59, No. 5. pp. 328–333. DOI: 10.17073/0368-0797-2016-5-328-333.
9. Kapelyushin Y. E., Roshchin V. E., Roshchin A. V. Beneficiation of vanadium and titanium oxides by using selective extraction of iron in low-titanium magnetite concentrate. Solid State Phenomena. 2017. Vol. 265. pp. 913–918.
10. Gamov P. A., Mal'kov N. V., Roshchin V. E. Thermodynamic modelling of the metals' reduction process from the suroyam titanomagnetite concentrate. Bulletin of the South Ural State University. Series: Metallurgy. 2018. Vol. 18, No. 2. pp. 21–28.
11. Seplyarskii B. S., Kochetkov R. A. A study of the characteristics of the combustion of Ti + xC (x > 0.5) powder and granular compositions in a gas coflow. Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry B. 2017. Vol. 11, Iss. 2. pp. 793–807.
12. Lebedev P. D. Designing and engineering driers. Moscow : Metallurgiya, 1964. 220 p.
13. Lykov M. V. Chemical industry and the drying process. Moscow : Energiya, 1966. 320 p.
14. Paskonov V. M., Polezhaev V. I., Chudov L. A. Numerical modelling of heat and mass transfer processes. Moscow : Nauka, 1964. 286 p.
15. Arutyunov V. A., Bukhmirov V. V., Krupennikov S. A. Mathematical modelling of the thermal performance of industrial furnaces. Moscow : Metallurgiya, 1990. 239 p.
16. Panchenko S. V., Shirokikh T. V. Thermal hydraulics of moving dispersive layer of process units. Theoretical Foundations of Chemical Engineering. 2016. Vol. 50, No. 2. pp. 217–224.
17. Bobkov V. I., Borisov V. V., Dli M. I. Approach to a heat conductivity research by fuzzy numerical methods in the conditions of indeterminacy thermal characteristics. Systems of Control, Communication and Security. 2017. No. 3. pp. 73–83.
18. Bazhin V. Yu., Savchenkov S. A., Kosov Yu. I. Specificity of the titaniumpowder alloying tablets usage in aluminium alloys. Non-ferrous Мetals. 2016. Vol. 2. pp. 52–56. DOI: 10.17580/nfm.2016.12.11.
19. Low J., Cheng B., Yu J. Surface modification and enhanced photocatalytic CO2 reduction performance of TiO2: a review. Applied Surface Science. 2017. pp. 658–686.
20. Jin Zhang, Aili Wang, Hengbo Yin. Preparation of graphite nanosheets in different solvents by sand milling and their enhancement on tribological properties of lithium-based grease. Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering. 2020. Vol. 28, Iss. 4. pp. 1177–1186.
21. Elgharbi S., Horchani-Naifer K., Férid M. Investigation of the structural and mineralogical changes of Tunisian phosphorite during calcinations. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry. 2015. Vol. 119, No. 1. pp. 265–269.
22. Kuskov V. B., Nikitin M. V. Concentration and processing of minerals: A learner’s guide. Saint Petersburg : Sankt-Peterburgskiy gornyi institut, 2002. 84 p.

Language of full-text russian
Full content Buy