Journals →  Chernye Metally →  2023 →  #10 →  Back

85th anniversary of the dept. of Mechanics and Machine-building of Siberian state industrial university
ArticleName Formation of a defective pearlite structure in the head of hypereutectoid steel rails during operation
DOI 10.17580/chm.2023.10.04
ArticleAuthor V. E. Gromov, S. V. Konovalov, M. A. Porfiryev, O. A. Peregudov

Siberian State Industrial University, Novokuznetsk, Russia

V. E. Gromov, Dr. Phys.-Math., Prof., Head of the Dept. of Natural Sciences named after professor V. N. Finkel, e-mail:
S. V. Konovalov, Dr. Eng., Prof., Head of the Dept. of Mechanics and Mechanical Engineering, e-mail:
M. A. Porfiryev, Postgraduate Student of the Dept. of Natural Sciences named after professor V. N. Finkel


Omsk State Technical University, Omsk, Russia
O. A. Peregudov, Cand. Eng., Vice-Rector for Youth Policy and Educational Activities


Abstract: Using transmission electron diffraction microscopy, the formation of a defective pearlite substructure in the head of special-purpose rails of DT400IK category with increased wear resistance and contact endurance made of hypereutectoid E90KhAF steel was studied after operation (passed tonnage 187 million tons gross). At distances of 0, 2, 10 mm from the rolling surface along the central axis, four morphological components of pearlite were analyzed: lamellar, fragmented, destroyed and globular. The scalar and excess dislocation density, the sizes of cementite fragments and particles, internal stress fields and their non-monotonic change across the head cross section were determined. The transformation paths of lamellar pearlite were established, the destruction of which ensures fragmentation and formation of a subgrain structure, the redistribution of cementite particles in the morphological components and formation of elastic distortions of the steel matrix crystal lattice. A physical interpretation of the observed dependencies is presented.
We express our gratitude to E. V. Polevoy, Cand. Eng., for providing samples, I. Yu. Litovchenko, Dr. Phys.-Math., for assistance in conducting electron microscopic studies and R. E. Kryukov, Dr. Eng., for discussion of the results.

keywords Pearlite, rails, electron microscopy, dislocation substructure, dislocation density, rail head, hypereutectoid steel

1. Yuriev A. A., Gromov V. E., Ivanov Yu. F., Rubannikova Yu. A. et al. Structure and properties of lengthy rails after extreme long-term operation. Materials Research Foundation. 2021. 194 p.
2. Gromov V. E., Ivanov Yu. F., Kuznetsov R. V., Glezer A. M. et al. Deformation transformation of the structure and phase composition of the rail surface during ultra-long operation. Deformatsiya i razrushenie materialov. 2022. No. 1. pp. 35–39.
3. Grigorovich K. V., Gromov V. E., Kuznetsov R. V., Ivanov Yu. F., Shlyarova Yu. A. Formation of the fine structure of pearlitic steel during ultra-long-term plastic deformation. Doklady Rossiyskoy akademii nauk. Fizika, tekhnicheskie nauki. 2022. Vol. 503. pp. 8–12.
4. Panin V. E., Ivanov Yu. F., Yuryev A. A., Gromov V. E. et al. Evolution of the fine structure and properties of rail metal during long-term operation. Fizicheskaya mezomekhanika. 2020. No. 23 (5). pp. 85–94.
5. Benoît D., Salima B., Marion R. The tridimensional gradient of microstructure in worn rails – Experimental characterization of plastic deformation accumulated by RCF. Wear. 2017. Vol. 392–393. pp. 50–59.
6. Benoît D., Salima B., Marion R. Multiscale characterization of head check initiation on rails under rolling contact fatigue: Mechanical and microstructure analysis. Wear. 2016. Vol. 366–367. pp. 383–391.
7. Shi X.-J., Zhang X.-X., Diao G.-J., Yan Q.-Z. Wear behavior of high-speed wheel and rail steels under various hardness matching. Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance. 2023. Vol. 32. pp. 366–380.
8. Rui P., Yuda C., Hu L., Shiju E., Ruiming R. Investigation into the microstructure evolution and damage on rail at curved tracks. Wear. 2022. Vol. 504–505. 204420.
9. Yoshikazu K., Naotaka U., Hu L., Motohide M., Shoji N. Influence of a decarburised layer on the formation of microcracks in railway rails: On-site investigation and twin-disc study. Wear. 2022. Vol. 504–505. 204427.
10. Michaël S. On the genesis of squat-type defects on rails – Toward a unified explanation. Wear. 2021. Vol. 478–479. 203906.
11. Liang Z., Wei B., Zhenyu H., Wenjian W. et al. Comparison of the damage and microstructure evolution of eutectoid and hypereutectoid rail steels under a rolling-sliding contact. Wear. 2022. Vol. 492–493. 204233.
12. GOST 51685–2013. Railway rails. General specifications. Introduced: 01.07.2014.
13. Technical Specification 24.10.75111-298-057576.2017. Russian Railways broad gauge railway rails, type R65, category DT400IK, with increased wear resistance and contact endurance. Introduced: 01.06.2017.
14. Egerton F. R. Physical principles of electron microscopy. Basel: Springer International Publishing. 2016. 196 p.
15. Kumar C. S. S. R. Transmission electron microscopy. characterization of nanomaterials. New York: Springer. 2014. 717 p.
16. Carter C. B., Williams D. B. Transmission electron microscopy. Berlin: Springer International Publishing. 2016. 518 p.
17. Saltykov S. A. Stereometric metallography. Moscow : Metallurgiya. 1970. 376 p.
18. Popova N. A., Ivanov Yu. F., Gromov V. E. et al. Internal stresses in polycrystalline materials. Novokuznetsk : Poligrafist. 2022. 144 p.
19. Kozlov E. V., Popova N. A., Koneva N. A. Fragmented substructure formed in BCC steels during deformation. Izvestiya RAN. Seriya fizicheskaya. 2004. Vol. 68. No. 10. pp. 1419–1428.
20. Gridnev V. N., Gavrilyuk V. G. Decomposition of cementite during plastic deformation of steel. Metallofizika. 1982. Vol. 4. No. 3. pp. 74–87.
21. Bhadeshia H. K. D. H. Cementite. International materials reviews. 2020. Vol. 65, Iss. 1. pp. 1–27.
22. Rybin V. V. Large plastic deformations and destruction of metals. Moscow : Metallurgiya. 1986. 224 p.

Language of full-text russian
Full content Buy