Journals →  Chernye Metally →  2021 →  #5 →  Back

Ecology and Recycling
ArticleName Development of technology for production of grinding bodies with improved performance properties from the rail steels rejection
DOI 10.17580/chm.2021.05.10
ArticleAuthor A. A. Umanskiy, A. S. Simachev, L. V. Dumova

Siberian State Industrial University (Novokuznetsk, Russia):

A. A. Umanskiy, Cand. Eng., Director of the Center for Collective Use “Materials Science”, e-mail:
A. S. Simachev, Cand. Eng., Deputy Director of the Center for Collective Use “Materials Science”, e-mail:
L. V. Dumova, Senior Lecturer, Dept. of Management and Industry Economics, e-mail:


In order to develop optimal modes of production of grinding balls at screw rolling mills from the rejection of rail steel blanks that were not previously used for the production of this type of product, experimental studies of the influence of the chemical composition of rail steels and the temperature conditions of their rolling on the quality of the structure and impact resistance of the balls were conducted. Based on laboratory studies, it was determined that alloying with chromium and nickel, as well as increasing the carbon content, leads to a deterioration in the microstructure of the resulting balls, without increasing their hardness. It is optimal to produce grinding balls made of 76XF and 76F steel grades. Experimental studies carried out in laboratory and industrial conditions determined the optimal rolling temperature of the balls, which provides a reduction in cracking and an increase in the performance characteristics of grinding media. It is shown that an increase in the heating temperature of the rail steel billets for rolling and the temperature of the beginning of rolling of the balls from 980 °C to 1030 °C causes an increase in the quality of the structure of the balls and an increase in their impact resistance while maintaining a high surface hardness. The expected economic effect of the introduction of modes of production of grinding balls from the rejection of rail steels, developed taking into account the above recommendations on the optimal chemical composition of the initial blanks and the temperature conditions of their rolling, is 22.5 million rubles / year.

The work was carried out using the equipment of SSIU of the Center for Collective Use “Materials Science” of the Siberian State Industrial University.

keywords Rail steel, grinding balls, ball rolling mill, ductility, impact resistance, rolling mode

1. Golovatenko А. V., Volkov К. V., Aleksandrov I. V., Kuznetsov Е. P., Dorofeev V. V., Sapelkin О. I. Commissioning of the universal rail beam mill and development of the technology of rail production on modern equipment in the rail beam shop of JSC EVRAZ ZSMK. Chernaya metallurgiya. Byulleten nauchno-tekhnicheskoy i ekonomicheskoy informatsii. 2014. No. 6(1374). pp. 32–38.
2. Shaburov D. V., Popov A. E., Zagumennov O. V. Rail production on a universal mill. Steel in Translation. 2016. Vol. 46. No. 7. pp. 503–504.
3. Polevoy Е. V., Yunin G. N., Golovatenko А. V., Temlyantsev М. V. The latest developments of rail products in JSC EVRAZ ZSMK. Stal. 2019. No. 7. pp. 55–58.
4. Smetanin S. V., Peretyatko V. N., Yuryev А. B., Dorofeev V. V., Filippova М. V. Resource-saving technology of rolling of Vignoles railway rails on an universal rail-beam mill. Proizvodstvo prokata. 2019. No. 7. pp. 21–27.
5. Golovatenko А. V., Volkov К. V., Dorofeev V. V., Stepanov S. V., Dobryanskiy А. V. Development of rolling technology and calibration processes of railway rails. Proizvodstvo prokata. 2014. No. 2. pp. 25–39.
6. Kozyrev N. А., Umanskiy А. А., Boykov D. V. Development of ladle treatment technology for rail electric steel providing rising of operational stability of rails. Chernye Metally. 2015. No. 4. pp. 29–33.
7. Polevoy Е. V., Yunin G. N., Temlyantsev М. V. Development and industrial mastering of the technology of differentiated heat treatment of railway rails using heat of rolled heating. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Chernaya metallurgiya. 2016. Vol. 59. No. 10. pp. 704–714.
8. Dementyev V. P., Feyler S. V., Boykov D. V., Kozyrev N. А., Polevoy Е. V. Results of operation of rails of import production on the East Siberian railway. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Chernaya metallurgiya. 2016. Vol. 59. No. 6. pp. 402–408.
9. Baranov N. А., Tulupov О. N. Production of grinding balls from rail steel. Aktualnye problemy sovremennoy nauki, tekhniki i obrazovaniya. 2017. Vol. 1. pp. 96–99.
10. Pater Z., Tomczak J., Bulzak T., Andrietti S., Barbelet M. An innovative method for producing balls from scrap rail heads. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology. 2018. Vol. 97, Iss. 1–4. pp. 893–901.
11. Tomczak J., Pater Z., Bulzak T. The flat wedge rolling mill for forming balls from heads of scrap railway rails. Archives of Metallurgy and Materials. 2018. Vol. 63. No. 1. pp. 5–12.
12. Chernyak S. S., Broydo V. L., Tuzhilina L. V. Development of composition and technology for manufacturing wear-resistant rails from eutectoid steels. Sovremennye tekhnologii. Sistemny analiz. Modelirovanie. 2017. No. 4 (56). pp. 197–206.
13. Umansky А. А., Golovatenko А. V., Temlyantsev М. V., Dorofeev V. V. Experimental studies of plasticity and deformation resistance of chromium rail steels. Chernye Metally. 2019. No. 6. pp. 24–28.
14. Krutilin А. N., Bestuzhev N. I., Bestuzhev А. N., Kalenkovich D. N. Grinding bodies. Challenges. Prospects. Lityo i metallurgiya. 2009. No. 4 (53). pp. 26–33.
15. Vdovin К. N., Feoktistov N. А., Abenova М. B., Kulikov V. D., Kondratyev I. S. Quality of grinding balls made by various methods. Teoriya i tekhnologiya metallurgicheskogo proizvodstva. 2015. No. 1 (16). pp. 78–81.
16. Aldrich C. Consumption of steel grinding media in mills. Minerals Engineering. 2013. Vol. 49. pp. 77–91.
17. Umucu Y., Deniz V. The effect of ball type in fine particles grinding on kinetic breakage parameters. Inzynieria Mineralna. 2015. Vol. 16, Iss. 1. pp. 197–203.
18. Rakhutin М. G., Boyko P. F. Ways to improve methods for evaluating the main characteristics of grinding balls. Ugol. 2017. No. 12. pp. 49–51.
19. GOST 51685–2013. Railway rails. General specifications. Introduced: 01.07.2014.
20. Kasatkin О. G., Vinokur B. B., Timoshenko V. L. Calculation models for determination of critical points of steel. Metallovedenie i termicheskaya obrabotka metallov. 1984. No. 1. pp. 20–22.
21. GOST 5639–82. Steel and alloys. Methods for detection and determination of grain size. Introduced: 01.01.1983

Language of full-text russian
Full content Buy