Journals →  CIS Iron and Steel Review →  2021 →  #2 →  Back

Metal Science and Metallography
ArticleName Influence of aluminium and niobium alloying on phase composition, structure and properties of heat- and wear-resistant cast iron of Cr-Mn-Ni-Ti system
DOI 10.17580/cisisr.2021.02.10
ArticleAuthor V. M. Kolokoltsev, E. V. Petrochenko, O. S. Molochkova

Nosov Magnitogorsk State Technical University, Magnitogorsk, Russia:

V. M. Kolokoltsev, Dr. Eng., Prof.
E. V. Petrochenko, Dr. Eng., Prof., e-mail:
O. S. Molochkova, Cand. Eng., Associate Prof., e-mail:


The paper presents the data on phase composition and structure forming for the alloys and oxide layers, on distribution of elements among the alloy structural components and oxidation surface through the depth of oxide and sub-oxide layers, on variation of wear resistance, scale resistance, growing stability and mechanical properties of cast iron of Cr-Mn-Ni-Ti-Al-Nb system depending on different aluminium and niobium content and thermal accumulating capacity of a casting mould. Complex carbides (Nb, Ti)C are forming in white cast iron during niobium alloying. Quantitative metallographic analysis of (Nb, Ti)C carbides and (Cr, Fe, Mn)7C3 complex carbides was carried out on the samples with examined composition. The tests for scale resistance were conducted, structure and properties of cast iron were investigated. It was determined that chemical composition and structure of oxide layers depend on distribution of alloying elements among the alloy structural components. It was established that the areas of oxide film surface layer, which were formed on eutectics, contain mainly manganese; its concentration is more than 65 %, while Al is 4 % and Cr is 1 %. Manganese leads to increase of defects amount, such as pores, micro-cracks and vacancies, in oxide film during high-temperature gas oxidation; penetration ability of this film also increases, what has a negative effect on metal resistance to further destruction caused by oxidation. The film becomes porous, its thickness enlarges. Aluminium provides favourable influence on forming of the thin protective spinel-type films (dense substance with good metal adhesion) with minimal amount of defects; diffusion through such oxide film is very difficult. The areas of oxide layer, which were formed on austenite dendrites, contain mainly aluminium; its concentration is more than 24 %, while Mn is 16 % and Cr is 12 %. High aluminium content provides small film thickness. Joint alloying by aluminium and niobium leads to simultaneous increase of heat resistance and wear resistance. Wear resistance increased as a result of enlargement of the part of primary carbides (Nb, Ti)C with high hardness in the structure of cast iron. Composition of oxide films includes aluminium which strengthens their protective properties and rises of the alloy scale resistance. Alloying by niobium leads to secondary hardening during cooling in a casting mould. Dispersion particles of М7С3 carbides are forming in solid state, thereby no structure degradation occurs during testing at increased temperatures, and growing stability rises.

keywords White cast iron, temperature conditions of metal cooling, casting moulds, chemical composition, cast iron structure, oxide layers, phase composition, dispersion hardening, heat resistance, wear resistance, microhardness

1. Gushchin N. S., Kulikov V. I., Nuraliev F. A., Takhirov A. A. Wear-resistant chromium-alloyed cast iron with special properties. Liteinoe proizvodstvo. 2015. No. 4. pp. 7–11.
2. Aleksandrov M. V. Structure forming and abrasive wear-resistance of cast composite material of the system presented by alloyed cast iron and TiC. Liteishchik Rossii. 2015. No. 2. pp. 29–34.
3. Netrebko V. V. Alloying features of white wear-resistance cast iron. Lityo i metallurgiya. 2014. Vol. 75. No. 2. pp. 37–41.
4. Nofal Cmrdi А. Metallurgical aspects of white cast iron with high chromium content. Liteishchik Rossii. 2017. No. 11. pp. 26–32.
5. Silman G. I. Alloyed white iron with composite structure. Metal Science and Heat Treatment. 2005. Vol. 47. pp. 343–348.
6. Tsypin I. I. White wear-resistant cast iron — evolution and prospects. Liteinoe proizvodstvo. 2000. No. 9. pp. 15–16.
7. Bobro Yu. G. Alloyed cast iron. Moscow. Metallurgiya. 1976. 288 p.
8. Silman G. I. Thermodynamics and thermokinetics of structure forming in cast iron and steel. Moscow: Mashinostroenie. 2007. 302 p.
9. Garber M. E. Wear-resistant white cast iron: properties, structure, technology, operation. Moscow: Mashinostroenie. 2010. 280 p.
10. Karantzalis A. E., Lekatou A., Kapoglou A., Mavros H., Dracopoulos V. Phase Transformations and Microstructucal Observations During Subcritical Heat Treatments of a High-Chromium Cast Iron. Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance. 2012. pp. 1030–1039.
11. Sain P. K., Sharma C. P., Bhargava A. K. Microstructure Aspects of a Newly Developed, Low Cost, Corrosion-Resistant White Cast Iron. Journal Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A. 2013. Vol. 44F. pp. 1665–1671.
12. Yoganandh J., Natarjan S., Kumaresh Babu S. P. Erosive Wear Behavior of Nickel-Based High Alloy White Cast Iron Under Mining Conditions Using Orthogonal Array. Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance. 2013. Vol. 22. No. 9. pp.2534–2540.
13. Zhenting W., Hongming G. Investigation on microstructure and wear resistance of the new Cr-W-Mo-V high-alloy wear resistant cast iron. Advanced Materials Research. 2015.Vols. 1061-1062. pp. 670–673.
14. Kolokoltsev V.M., Petrochenko E.V. Structure features and properties of high-alloy white irons. Vestnik Magnitogorskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta im. G. I. Nosova. 2013. Vol. 45. No. 5. pp. 3–8.
15. Petrochenko E. V. Features of crystallization, forming of structure and properties of wear- and heat-resistant cast iron in various cooling conditions. Dissertation for Dr. Eng. degree: 05.16.01. reported 11.12.12. approved 20.05.13. Magnitogorsk. 2012. 310 p.
16. Molochkova O. S. Choice of composition and examination of structure and properties of heat- and wear resistant complex alloyed white cast iron. Dissertation for Cand. Eng. degree: 05.16.01. reported 16.10.12. approved 10.01.13. Magnitogorsk. 2012. 123 p.
17. Goldshtein Ya. E., Mizin V. G. Inoculation of Fe-C alloys. Moscow: Metallurgiya. 1993. 416 p.
18. Kawalec M. The spheroidization of VC carbides in high-vanadium cast iron. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 2011. Vol. 11. (Spec. 3). pp. 111–116.
19. Wang Z. H., He D. Y. et all. Effect of vanadium on property of Fe-Cr-C hard-facing alloy. Transactions of the China Welding Institution. 2010. Vol. 31. No. 9. pp. 61–63.
20. Kawalec M., Corny M. Alloyed white cast iron with precipitation of spheroidal vanadium carbides VC. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 2011. Vol. 12. No. 4. pp. 95–100.
21. Gromczyk М., Kondracki М., Studnicki А., Szajnar J. Stereological analysis of carbides in hypoeutectic chromium cast iron. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 2015. Vol. 15. No. 2. pp. 17–22.
22. Kolokoltsev V. M., Petrochenko E. V., Molochkova O. S. Influence of boron modification and cooling conditions during solidification on structural and phase state of heat- and wear-resistant white cast iron. CIS Iron and Steel Review. 2018. Vol. 15. pp. 11–15. 
23. Kolokoltsev V. M., Petrochenko E. V., Molochkova O. S. Al influenceon the phase composition, structure and properties of heatand wear-resistant cast iron of Cr–Mn–Ni–Ti system. Chernye metally. 2018. № 7. pp. 6–11.
24. Kolokoltsev V. M., Petrochenko E. V., Molochkova O. S. Effect of niobium addition on the structural-phase composition, mechanical and special properties of cast irons based on the Cr–Mn–Ni–Ti system. Chernye metally. 2019. No. 2. pp. 18–24.
25. Efremenko V. G., Cheilyakh A. P., Kozarevskaya N. V., Shimidzu K., Chabal Yu. G., Efremenko A. V. Intra-phase distribution of chemical elements in the complex alloyed white cast iron. Visnik Priazovskogo derzhavnogo tekhnichnogo universitetu. Tekhnichny nauki. 2014. No. 28. pp. 89–99.

Full content Influence of aluminium and niobium alloying on phase composition, structure and properties of heat- and wear-resistant cast iron of Cr-Mn-Ni-Ti system