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ArticleName Adaptive relay protection of metallurgical electric power grids with distributed energy sources
DOI 10.17580/tsm.2023.04.03
ArticleAuthor Ivanchenko D. I., Smirnov A. I.

Saint Petersburg Mining University, Saint Petersburg, Russia:

D. I. Ivanchenko, Associate Professor, Candidate of Technical Sciences, e-mail:
A. I. Smirnov, Assistant Lecturer, Candidate of Technical Sciences, e-mail:


Today’s metallurgical industry is characterized with a growing consumption of electric power necessary to maintain production. According to the Energy Strategy of the Russian Federation till 2035, one of the basic solutions for efficient and uninterrupted power supply for (metallurgical) production sites includes the use of distributed generation systems. Such systems require highly reliable relays and controls ensuring reliability of power grids and power supply to production sites. This paper analyzes certain issues that may occur with relays and controls being a part of distributed generation systems. The authors simulated activation of overcurrent relays as the result of changed power grid topology and accounting for the impact of distributed generation sources. The study reflected limitations on the application of conventional relays and controls in grids with distributed generation sources and helped identify key factors affecting the overcurrent protection. Having analyzed the simulation outcomes, as well as the proposed solutions for the use of relays and controls in grids with distributed generation sources, the authors demonstrate that such relays and controls should be adaptive. To solve the problem of dynamic adaptation of relays to changed short circuit currents, the authors propose an adaptive algorithm for choosing the short circuit protection actuation setpoints. The algorithm was tested on a computer model of a distribution system comprising several generators and consumers, which simulated the dynamic modes of the electric power system of a metallurgical site. The algorithm proved effective.

keywords Distributed generation, relay protection, overcurrent protection, short, adaptive protection, grid automation

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