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Preparation of Raw Materials
ArticleName Comparative review on the technologies of briquetting, sintering, pelletizing and direct use of fines in processing of ore and technogenic materials
DOI 10.17580/cisisr.2023.02.01
ArticleAuthor Yu. E. Kapelyushin

South Ural State University (Chelyabinsk, Russia)

Yu. E. Kapelyushin, PhD, Head of the Scientific and Research Laboratory “Physical-Chemistry and Gas Dynamics Problems”, Senior Researcher of the Scientific and Research Laboratory “Hydrogen Technologies in Metallurgy”, e-mail:


A critical comparative analysis of technologies for preparation of ore and technogenic materials before metallurgical processing was conducted in this research. Briquetting, sintering, pelletizing and direct use of fines (processing without agglomeration) were conditionally emphasized among these technologies. The roller-press briquetting, vibropressing briquetting and stiff vacuum extrusion constitute the basis of the briquetting technology, advantages and disadvantages of these methods were analyzed that accompany briquetting. A few modern briquetting plants in CIS countries were commissioned. The main features were provided for agglomeration via pelletizing method. The sintering technology was reviewed, as well as data on new sintering plants in Russia. The technologies of direct processing of fines, which are conditionally divided into “fluidized bed” and direct processing of the fines in the melt, were briefly considered. The restrictions for processing in a “fluidized bed” were described as well as reduction characteristics of pellets and briquettes, which are often accompanied by swelling (variation of linear dimensions). The main causes of swelling of iron ore materials during reduction were described. The political and ecological factors of production and the problems of hydrogen power engineering were examined. The characteristics of total carbon dioxide emissions were provided for different production. It was shown that smelting of briquettes and pellets in arc furnaces, which are preliminary metalized by the gaseous reducing agents, are characterized by the lowest amount of emissions among the existing technologies. At the same time, the maximal carbon dioxide emissions are observed when using the alternative technologies, which utilize lump coal as a reducing agent.

The research was funded by the Russian Science Foundation grant No. 21-79-00081 of the Russian scientific fund,

keywords Roller-press briquetting, vibropressing briquetting, stiff vacuum extrusion, pelletizing, sintering, direct reduction, swelling of materials, hydrogen, carbon dioxide emissions

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